03 // Sustainability: Low Energy Consumption, Short Energy Payback Time and Minimized Material Consumption

Based upon the intrinsic features of thin film solar cells – short energy payback time and minimum use of high purity materials – thin-film solar cells produce electricity at costs below conventional energy sources. If the carbon footprint is also taken into account, there is a clear advantage of thin-film solar cells and a real chance for providing a truly sustainable energy source. Complete recycling of end-of-life modules is technically feasible and will be exploited in the future once significant volumes are available. This combination makes CIGS one of the
most sustainable solution for PV volume production.