The efficiency credentials of CIGS technology continue to improve through the efforts of the global R&D community. In January 2019, scientists from Solar Frontier achieved a conversion efficiency of 23.35% on a 1 cm² cell. It has not only been demonstrated that single junction CIS technologies easily get into the range of top c-Si record efficiencies, the technology has also proven again, that material and device innovation also enable the substitution of cadmium sulphide in this efficiency range.
This shows the importance of framework conditions which enable continuous innovation and efficiency improvements in photovoltaics. In order to find the best solution, it is essential not locking out certain material pathways, but rather empowering researchers to develop efficiency pathways in conjunction with assessing all potential material alternatives.